1st Edition of Neurology and Neuroscience

Theme: Innovative Approaches and Risks Involved in Alzheimer Dementia and Parkinsonism Research

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Madrid, Spain

18 years of lifescience communication

Performers / Professionals From Around The Globe

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EADP 2018

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On behalf of EuroSciCon, it gives us pleasure to cordially welcome you all to the “1st Edition on Alzheimer’s Disease and Parkinsonism”, held during December 10-11, 2018 in Madrid, Spain.

The conference will be organized under the theme “Innovative Approaches and Risks Involved in Alzheimer Dementia and Parkinsonism Research”

The conference has been scheduled and implemented in accordance with the accreditation policies and requirements of the Accreditation Committee.

Track on: Alzheimer’s Disease

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder of the brain which causes impairment of memory and other cognitive abilities that interferes with an individual’s daily activities. The most common form of dementia is the Alzheimer’s disease which accounts for about 60-80% of all dementia cases. Alzheimer’s disease is not a part of normal aging and the exact cause of the disease is unknown. It most often affects people over 65 years of age and older. The disease starts slowly and then the symptom worsens progressively over time. Researchers believe that an increase in the build-up of a specific protein called beta-amyloid in the brain leads to nerve cell death. There were approximately 29 million people worldwide with Alzheimer’s disease in the year 2015.

Track on: Dementia

Dementia is a chronic disease of the brain hindering the ability of an individual to remember and think affecting the person’s life. Dementia is long-term and progressive causing problems with language, skills, and emotions. The damage in the brain cells interferes with the brain cells to communicate with other nerve cells affecting a person’s ability to carry out the daily activities. There are many distinct regions in the brain, each of which is responsible for different roles such as memory, judgment, and movement. When there is damage to the cells in a particular region of the brain then that region cannot carry out its functions normally. Dementia is irreversible and is prevalent mostly in the older people aged 60 and older. 1 in 10 people above 65 years develops Alzheimer’s dementia.

Track on: Parkinson’s Disease

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a chronic and progressive neuromuscular disorder of the Central Nervous System (CNS). Parkinson’s disease occurs when nerve cells in the brain do not produce enough of a neurotransmitter called dopamine. Parkinson's disease particularly affects neurons in the area of the brain called the substantia nigra. Parkinson’s disease symptoms are collectively known as “Parkinsonism” or “Parkinsonian syndrome” which includes muscle rigidity, tremors, and changes in speech and gait. Researchers found that a protein, alpha-synuclein is primarily involved in Parkinson’s disease. Parkinson's disease primarily occurs in people over the age of 60 and it affected approximately 6 million people and resulted in about 117,400 deaths globally in the year 2015. Some people may develop dementia symptoms in the later stage of Parkinson’s disease.

Track on: Neuromuscular Disorders

Neuromuscular disorder is a disorder of the nervous system which affects the nerves that control your voluntary muscles. The nerve cells or neurons send the signal to control the muscles. When the neurons become damaged or die the communication between the nervous system and muscles breaks down. This can ultimately lead to the weakening of the muscles and waste away. The weakening of the muscles can lead to twitching, cramps, aches, tremors, and joint and movement problems. The neuromuscular disorders can be caused by defects in the genes, hereditary disorders, autoimmune disorders and exposure to certain chemicals and toxins which include heavy metal poisoning. Some examples of neuromuscular disorders are Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, multiple sclerosis, Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease and Spinal muscular atrophy. Most of these neuromuscular diseases have no cure and the treatment is only to improve symptoms, increase mobility and improve the quality of life.

Track on: Causative Agents of Alzheimer’s Disease and Parkinsonism

There have been a lot of on-going research, but so far the researchers aren't sure of the exact cause of Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson’s disease. Alzheimer’s disease is caused by various factors such as age, genetic/hereditary, and environmental factors that affect the activity of the brain over time. About 1-5% of cases, Alzheimer's is caused by specific genetic changes have been identified. Two types of abnormalities plaques and tangles are commonly seen in patients with Alzheimer’s. Most experts believe that Parkinson’s disease is caused by a combination of genetic, gender and environmental factors. 5-10% of cases with PD are identified to have mutations in one of the several specific genes. Though age is the primary risk factor in Parkinson's disease, some medicines, and various chemicals used in welding, farming, military activities and industrial processes are also associated with the disease. The accumulation of a protein called alpha-synuclein found within Lewy Bodies is observed in patients with PD.

Track on: Pathophysiology and Disease Mechanism

Alzheimer's disease is characterized by the loss of neurons and synapses in the cerebral cortex and certain subcortical regions of the brain. The amyloid hypothesis directs to the accumulation of beta-amyloid peptides as the central event causing neuron degeneration. The pathological form of the protein (aggregation of amyloid fibrils) is responsible for the disruption of the cell's calcium ion homeostasis and inducing programmed cell death.

The pathological characteristics of Parkinson’s disease is the cell death in the brain's basal ganglia affecting the dopamine secreting neurons in the substantia nigra and the presence of Lewy bodies in the remaining neurons. There are several mechanisms by which the brain cells could be damaged. One of the mechanisms involves the accumulation of the protein alpha-synuclein bound to ubiquitin in the damaged cells.

Track on: Stages and Symptoms

The progression of symptoms of Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease varies from person to person and knowing the characteristic stages of the disease can help to understand the person’s difficulty. The common symptoms of AD include memory loss, impairment in cognitive functions, difficulty speaking and learning, and behavioral changes. The primary symptoms of PD include tremor, slow physical movements or bradykinesia, rigidity, hallucinations, masked face and postural instability. In some patients, there may also be non-motor symptoms in PD. The progressiveness and severity of the symptoms may last from a few years to decades. Alzheimer’s develops in three stages: mild, moderate and advanced. Parkinson’s disease is categorized into 3 stages based on the severity of the symptoms into mild, moderate and advanced stages. During the advanced stage of the disease, the person needs round the clock care and assisting them in daily activities.

Track on: Risks and Prevention

The risk factors associated with Alzheimer’s disease are not often seen in others without the disorder. The risk factors can help the researchers to find a way to prevent or treat the disease. Some of the risk factors such as age, family history, and genetics (APOE genes) cannot be prevented while some factors such as insufficient nutrition, diabetes, vascular diseases, high cholesterol and blood pressure can be prevented. The risk of Parkinson’s disease increases with the prevalence of the disease in the family history or closely associated relatives, genetics (PARK, LRRK, and PINK genes), and age. The genes load the gun and the environment pulls the trigger explains experts. The environmental risk factors such as chemicals (Insecticides, Herbicides, Fungicides, etc.,) and toxins (Welding, Agriculture, Industries, etc.,)used in various professions are associated with PD.The risk factors such as age and genetics cannot be modified or prevented while the environmental risk factors like toxins and chemicals can be modified. 

Track on: Diagnosis of Alzheimer's Disease and Parkinsonism

The diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinsonism is not simple and there is no single test for it. It involves the doctor making a decision about whether the disease is the most likely cause of your symptoms and run various tests before getting clarity on the disease. The early diagnosis of these diseases is important because some causes for the symptoms can be treated but most of the symptoms are mild and are diagnosed only at the later stages of the disease. The diagnosis will be based on the person’s medical history, physical exams, laboratory tests, brain scans, genetic tests, neurological tests and response to medication. The mini mental state examination (MMSE) is a cognitive test to diagnose the symptoms of AD. The United Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) is a universal scale for symptoms of Parkinson’s disease and it is used to assess and document the exam of the patient with PD.

Track on: Management of Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinsonism

The management of AD and PD involves pharmacotherapy as well as non-pharmacological measures and also to reduce the burden of the caregivers. The medications available for medical treatment of AD and PD are anticholinergics, enzyme inhibitors, and levodopa, dopamine agonists, amantadine respectively. There is no medication available for the cure of Alzheimer's disease but there are ways to manage the symptoms. The specific medications for AD include cholinesterase inhibitors, NMDA receptor antagonist, and anti-amyloid therapy are claimed to improve patient's quality of life and cognition. Physical exercise and some therapies are given for patients to improve cognitive and motor functions. Advanced Parkinson's disease is concerned with motor complications as well as non-motor complications. Surgical treatment is a great option for managing motor complication. Hypotension, gait disturbances, emotional and psychiatric problems, sleep disturbances can be managed through medications and therapy. 

Track on: Care Management and Awareness

Alzheimer’s disease poses many challenges for the individual suffering from it and their family and caregivers. Parkinson’s disease is a chronic illness and can change your life and lifestyle in many ways. The caregiving takes skill and patience to know when to help the person with a task and when to allow more time to do the task. The important aspect for the people with this disease is to accept the fact and seek help from others without hesitation. The caregiver can plan the daily activities by breaking them into simple tasks and assist them whenever they are unable to work independently. People in the last stage of AD and PD are advised to enter into hospice care by the medical counselor, where a caregiver professional will help them with their every problem including mood swings, bathroom issues, and communication. It is easy for a carer to get stressed but participating in social groups can help to ease out. Globally, there is little or no understanding of this disease in many countries and it remains a global problem.

Track on: Deep Brain Stimulation

Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a neurosurgical practice where a thin metal electrode is implanted in a specific area of the brain, and the neurostimulator delivers minor electrical impulses that interfere and regulate abnormal symptoms for neuropsychiatric and movement disorders. DBS is the most common surgical treatment usually done in people who still get a benefit from medication. The patients who have motor symptoms between “OFF” medication states and troublesome dyskinesia are usually good surgical candidates. There are three primary targets for DBS of PD: the globus pallidus interna, the Vim nucleus of the thalamus, and the subthalamic nucleus. The ADvanced clinical trial studies revealed that the DBS of the fornix is safe and tolerable in patients with AD. Researchers have found that the DBS of the hypothalamus increased memory but there is no significant difference in cognition between people who have had DBS and who have not.

Track on: α-Synuclein, Amyloid and Tau Hypothesis

Alpha-synuclein is a pre-synaptic soluble protein that has been involved in diverse physiological and pathophysiological roles in the development of PD. α-synuclein is a key component of Lewy bodies and its mutated forms cause familial PD. The two common neuropathological cause of AD is neuritic plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs). Neuritic plaques or Aβ plaques are built off a central core of aggregated amyloid-β proteins, surrounded by dystrophic neurites, activated microglia, and reactive astrocytes. The amyloid cascade hypothesis states that the Aβ, a fragment of the amyloid precursor protein (APP), plays a critical role in the pathogenesis. The NFTs are intracellular bundles of paired helical filaments and straight filaments of tau protein aggregated in an abnormally hyperphosphorylated form. It is believed that this protein is the second predominant cause of pathogenesis in both AD and PD. 

Track on: Prognosis

After the diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease, the average life expectancy for a person aged 65 years or older is about four to eight years. Some studies have shown evidence that women have a longer life expectancy than men. The length of time people with AD will live depends on their age as well as the severity of their medical conditions. Patients with AD are often vulnerable to medical complication such as pneumonia, flu, and frequent falls which cause death.

Parkinson’s disease itself is not fatal but the related complications can reduce the life expectancy. The Parkinson's disease symptoms vary greatly from person to person and it is difficult to predict how quickly the disorder will progress. Untreated, Parkinson’s disease may lead to deterioration of all brain functions and an early death. However life expectancy of Parkinson’s disease is normal to near normal in most treated patients.

Track on: Therapeutic Approaches

The current pharmacotherapy for AD in the clinical practice is mainly symptomatic. Therapeutic strategies are aimed primarily at the slowing the progression of the disease and correct the altered neurotransmitter communication. The drugs approved by the FDA for the AD is the cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEI), such as donepezil, rivastigmine, galantamine, and NMDA receptor antagonists such as memantine. In Parkinson’s disease, the medications help the individuals manage problems with walking, movement, and tremor. These medications specifically target a neurotransmitter in the brain. The FDA approved the drugs such as L-dopa, Dopamine agonists (pramipexole, ropinirole, and rotigotine), MAO-B inhibitors (selegiline, and rasagiline), and amantadine to increase or mimic the dopamine effect. The main concern with these drugs is the side effects experienced by the people. Many studies are in clinical trials for finding a novel therapeutics for these chronic diseases.

Track on: Animal Models

The animal model studies have helped the researchers to understand the pathophysiological mechanisms of most neurodegenerative diseases. Organisms such as the mouse, zebrafish, Caenorhabditis elegans, and Drosophila melanogaster have been used for human model neurodegenerative conditions. Among the animal models, the transgenic mouse model is used commonly and has helped the researchers to modify the proteins and enzymes to induce disease-like symptoms and to find novel therapeutics. Recent advances in genome editing technology have allowed the zebrafish research to a new era of genome engineering, allowing feasible gene knockouts using engineered enzymes in labs. The invertebrate models have been widely used to understand the pathology of AD and PD. The well-developed genetic tools of these species have allowed the researchers to apply both forward and reverse genetics to study gene regulation, function and disease state.

About Conference

On behalf of EuroSciCon, it gives us pleasure to cordially welcome you all to the “1st Edition on Alzheimer’s Disease and Parkinsonism”, held during December 10-11, 2018 in Madrid, Spain.

The conference will be organized under the theme “Innovative Approaches and Risks Involved in Alzheimer Dementia and Parkinsonism Research”

The conference has been scheduled and implemented in accordance with the accreditation policies and requirements of the Accreditation Committee.

Dementia is a set of symptoms which affect the daily routine of an individual. Alzheimer’s disease is characterized by the cognitive impairment and behavioral changes which is common among the elderly people. Alzheimer’s disease is caused by various factors that directly or indirectly affect the brain.

Parkinsonism is a clinical syndrome characterized by lesions in the basal ganglia predominantly in the substantia nigra. The average age of onset of Parkinson’s disease is 56 years and it is twice likely to affect men than women.

EADP 2018 is a platform for the researching community, innovators and organizations to form a network and exhibit their research and work with the global audience. This meeting helps the global researchers and pharmacology industries to understand the recent advances in technology, clinical trials, novel drug discovery in the field of Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinsonism. This meeting will enable you to interact with your peers in the field of dementia and dementia care.

 

Market Analysis

Dementia is not a part of getting older but majority of the people with dementia are aged 65 and above. Worldwide, Finland has the highest death rate of Alzheimer’s which accounts for 53.77% per 100,000 populations. In the US, nearly 5 million people are affected by Alzheimer’s and some other types of dementia.

The prevalence of PD is approximately 160 cases per 100,000 populations, and the incidence is about 20 cases per 100,000 populations. The dementia associated with PD has been estimated to affect at least 20% of patients, with prevalence higher among older patients, less common among those with young-onset disease. An estimated 40% to 60% of PD patients suffer from depression, which appears to be related to the duration of disease.

In Europe, the European Union (EU) Commission grants funds for addressing neurodegenerative disorders. In 2009, the commission funded 639€ for more than 30 large-scale and 120 small-scale brain research projects. In the USA, more than 15 million Americans provide unpaid care for people with dementia. Treating patients with Parkinson’s disease costs the U.S. around $25 billion a year. The average patient will need $2,500 worth of medication each year and therapeutic surgery could cost up to $100,000.

Alzheimer’s disease is one of the major causes of death which cannot be cured or prevented around the world. According to WHO, there are about 47 million people have dementia of which nearly 60% are people who are living in low income and mid income countries. There are more than 9.5 million new cases globally with every 3 second a person is affected by dementia. Approximately 4 million people worldwide suffer from Parkinson’s disease.  Around 120,000 people in the UK have the condition.

In the year 2015, the socio and economic impacts on medical costs, informal care costs and social costs were estimated to be around 818 billion US$ which corresponds to 1.1% of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP).

 

WHY SPAIN?

Spain officially known as the Kingdom of Spain is located on the Iberian Peninsula with an area of 505,990 km2 in the south-western Europe. Spain is the most favored tourist destination with snow-capped mountains, stone walls, monuments and sophisticated places.

The largest city and the capital of Spain is Madrid. Spanish is the largest spoken language with 406 million people next to Chinese. The life expectancy of Spain is 82 and it is ranked 15th in the world. Spain has 44 World Heritage sites with historic cities and buildings, bridges, national parks and landscapes.

There are around 1000 neurologists, psychiatrists and neurosurgeons are involved in treating neurological disorders in Spain. The Spanish government officially approved a national strategy in July 2016 that covers all neurodegenerative disorders. A Recent survey showed that the direct costs per affected and their families amounted to 23,354 euros a year.

TARGET AUDIENCE

  • Neurologists
  • Professors
  • Young researchers
  • Business delegates
  • Geriatricians
  • Physicians
  • Psychiatrists
  • Neurosurgeons
  • Neuroscientists
  • Health organizations
  • Pharmaceutical industry

Media Partners/Collaborator

A huge thanks to all our amazing partners. We couldn’t have a conference without you!

Sponsors/Exhibitors

A huge thanks to all our amazing partners. We couldn’t have a conference without you!